HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to another through:
•blood (including menstrual blood)
Blood contains the highest concentration of the virus, followed by semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk.
*Activities that allow HIV transmission:
• Unprotected sexual contact
• Direct blood contact, including injection drug needles, Blood transfusion, accidents in health care settings or certain blood products
• Mother to baby (before or during birth or through breast milk)
Sexual Intercourse (vaginal and anal): in the genitals and rectum, HIV may infect the mucous membrane directly or enter through cuts and sores caused during intercourse (many of which would be unnoticed).
Oral sex (mouth-penis or mouth-vagina): The mouth is an inhospitable environment for HIV (in semen, vaginal fluid or blood), meaning the risk of HIV transmission through the throat, gums, and oral membranes is lower than through vaginal or anal membranes. There are however, documented cases where HIV was transmitted orally. HIV infected semen, vaginal fluid or blood in the mouth is not without risk (however, oral sex is considered a lower risk practice).
Sharing injection needles: An injection needle can pass blood directly from one person’s bloodstream to another. (Sharing needles is considered a high-risk practice)
The following fluids are NOT infectious: